Is the manipulating of biological organisms to make products that benefit human beings Modern achievements include transgenics, cell cloning and the creation of monoclonal antibodies.
This is a single piece of DNA which contains many genes, regulatory elements and gene sequences. It is the organized structure of DNA and DNA proteins found within a cell that helps to control its functions.
(Deoxyribonucleic acid) is a nucleic acid where the molecules carry genetic information within the cells. This genetic information is used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. DNA molecule’ primary role is the long-term storage of information. These molecules contain the blueprints or instructions needed to create other components of cells.
The process by which chromosomes duplicate before the cells divide.
A basic unit of heredity that transmits the characteristics of one generation to the next generation. Genes represent a segment of the DNA on a chromosome that determines a specific trait.
The modification of genetic material by technological means. Scientific applications may include the treatment of disease, enhancement of agriculture and manufacture of biological products. (Syn: genetic modification, gene splicing)
The manipulation of an individual’s genetic makeup to prevent or treat a disease. A form of therapy that attempts to fix the defective gene causing the disease.
The process by which cells from a hair follicle are multiplied outside the body and then implanted in the scalp to generate new hair follicles. It is not true cloning, since cloning generally refers to the replication of an entire organism or creating an identical copy of something. With the current models of hair cloning, the cells (multiplied in tissue culture) would be used to stimulate new hair to form. This would involve some interaction with the scalp tissue and thus not produce a product identical to the original hair. More accurate terms would be hair induction or hair multiplication. These technologies are currently not available.
Process by which existing hairs are plucked from a hairy area of the scalp or body and then multiplied and implanted into the bald part of the scalp. These hairs may be separated from the shafts and cultivated in vitro (outside the body). The idea is that some germinative cells at the base of the hair follicle will be pulled out along with the hair and grow. This technology had not yet proven to be successful.
A technique to isolate and amplify genes founded by Stanley Normal Cohen and Herbert Boyer by which a synthetic DNA is created by combining one or more DNA strands and causing DNA sequences that would normally not occur together.
The ability to regrow or recreate lost or damaged limbs, tissues or organs.
A type of tissue engineering that focuses on the use of stem cells to produce new tissue rather than by improving the function of existing tissue.
An undifferentiated cell from which specialized cells develop. These cells retain the ability to renew themselves through cell division, but lack the characteristics of specialized tissue.
A collection of related cells that perform a similar function in the body. Four basic tissue types include nerve, muscle, epidermal and connective.
The use of a suitable biochemical and physio-chemical factors to improve or replace the biological functions of cells. The term is commonly used for applications that repair or replace portions of or whole tissues, i.e., bone, cartilage, blood vessels.
The transference of a segment of DNA which has a gene sequence from one organism to another by any genetic engineering technique.
By: Dr. Robert M. Bernstein
Updated: 2015-05-22 | Published: 2009-07-30