Actuator
A motor that translates control signals into mechanical movement. The control signals are usually electrical but may, more rarely, be pneumatic or hydraulic. The power supply may likewise be any of these. It is common for electrical control to be used to modulate a high-power pneumatic or hydraulic motor.

Algorithm
A list of steps used to find a solution to a given problem. In hair transplantation, variables include determining the angle, depth and composition of follicular unit grafts.

Arm
Articulated component of the robotic hair transplantation device.

ARTAS Application
Software component of ARTAS System that runs on the hair transplant operating workstation.

ARTAS FU Counter Application
A software program used during microscopic inspection of individual follicles after harvesting for compiling a statistical report of the follicular unit quantity and quality used in the hair restoration.

ARTAS Key device
This USB security device is typically plugged into a monitor USB port to ensure that each donor harvest is tracked and counted against the number of follicular units that are licensed for harvest.

ARTAS Patient Chair
The reconfigurable chair used for harvesting and implantation on the patient undergoing the hair restoration procedure.

ARTAS System
A combination of components used to perform the ARTAS hair transplant procedure.

ARTAS System Cart
The ARTAS System component that holds the robotic arm and controls for the extract component of the hair restoration surgery.

Artificial Intelligence
The intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it.

Automation
A system uses programmable equipment for production. The equipment is capable of being altered and controlled by the program depending on the product.

Autonomous
Procedures in a system occurring without worker involvement and pre-programmed operations.

Axis
The point that something such as a tool rotates around. The number of axes a robot has varies, but the majority of industrial robots are 4-axis or 6-axis.

Biomimetic
Imitation of biological systems occurring in nature. Robot designed to replicate the way that surgeons position themselves and their tools during surgery.

Bionics
Also known as biomimetics, biognosis, biomimicry, or bionical creativity engineering is the application of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology.

Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM)
These systems and their data may be integrated into robotic operations.

Camera Calibration Target
The location where camera accuracy is assured during system verification procedure.

Center Position
A location safely over the patient to which the robotic arm moves when clicking Center Position button. Following this motion, Force Manual Control is typically used to manually position the robotic arm over the Skin Tensioner.

Computer-Assisted Surgery (CAS)
Computer-based procedure that uses technologies such as 3D imaging and real-time sensing in the planning, execution and follow-up of surgical procedures.

Computer Tomography (CT)
Scan that takes cross-sectional images using magnetic-resonance-imaging or x-ray methods.

Control Device
An instrument that allows a person to have control over a robot or automated system for times such as startup or an emergency.

Degrees of Freedom
The extent to which a robot can move itself; expressed in terms of Cartesian coordinates (x, y, and z) and angular movements (yaw, pitch, and roll).

Device
Hardware used to control various parts of a system.

Dexterity
The measure of the robot’s skill of completing specific difficult paths.

Dissection Punch Calibration
A procedure performed whenever a new dissection punch is installed on the Needle Mechanism to ensure that it is properly positioned relative to each follicle during harvest.

Dissection Punch
The punch used to dissect the tissue surrounding the follicle. This punch is dulled to ensure that the follicle is not cut during dissection.

End-Effector
An accessory device or tool specifically designed for attachment to the robot wrist or tool mounting plate to enable the robot to perform its intended task.

End-Of-Arm Tooling (EOAT)
Application tools that are located at the end of the robot arm. The quality of the EOAT greatly affects the performance of the system.

EPO Button
A red Emergency Power Off button attached to the surface of the ARTAS System Cart. Pressing the EPO button shuts off power to all subsystems except the computer. The EPO button must be reset before a long (approximately five minute) recovery process begins.

E-Stop Button
One of the red Emergency Stop buttons positioned near the physician and operator. Pressing the E-Stop button causes the Needle Mechanism to retract and return to its Safe Position, and the motor power to be turned off to the Robotic Arm. Reset the E-Stop to restore power to the Robotic Arm.

Follicular Unit Extraction (FUE)
The process of extracting individual follicular units directly from the donor area, rather than obtaining them through stereo-microscopic dissection of tissue harvested from a donor strip in the more traditional follicular unit transplant procedure.

Follicular Unit (FU)
A natural grouping of one to four hair follicles that is dissected as a single unit in the harvesting phase of the hair transplant. These groups are categorized as follows:
F1 = 1 hair follicle in the FU
F2 = 2 hair follicles in the FU
F3 = 3 hair follicles in the FU
F4+ = 4 or more follicles in the FU

Force Manual Control
A robotic motion mode in which the operator controls robotic arm motions by pressing on a ARTAS Pendant button and manipulating a handle attached to the Needle Mechanism. This mode is typically used to slowly lead the robotic arm to the harvest area.

Haptics
Haptics (pronounced HAP-tiks) is the science of applying touch (tactile) sensation and control to interaction with computer applications. (The word derives from the Greek haptein meaning “to fasten.”) By using special input/output devices (such as joysticks or data gloves), users can receive feedback from computer applications in the form of felt sensations in the hand or other parts of the body. In combination with a visual display, haptics technology can be used to train people for tasks requiring hand-eye coordination, including surgery.

Harvest Axis
Direction in which harvesting moves on the graphical display, as indicated by a line with an arrow drawn across the screen. This axis marks the lower bound of the area in which the system selects subsequent follicles. The axis is raised or lowered by pressing the arrow keys.

Harvest Mode
Modes of operation of the system. Harvesting modes that can be selected: Disabled, Simulation, Puncture-only, Fast harvest.

Harvest Parameters
Numbers adjusted by the operator to optimize the harvest procedure, including puncture depth and coring depth.

Harvest Snapshot Images
Two snapshots are taken and displayed after each harvest in the upper-right corner of the display. The left-hand snapshot shows the puncture needle while it is in the scalp, which is used to evaluate the puncture depth. The right-hand snapshot shows the harvest site after harvest, which is used to verify that the harvested follicle is well centered within the core of tissue that surrounds it.

Hi-Mag Cameras
One pair of stereo cameras consisting of a left and a right camera with a diagonal field view of approximately 2.5 cm. The Hi-Mag (high-magnification) pair of cameras is used for locating and tracking individual hairs for dissection.

Instructions for Use (IFU)
Documentation included in the Disposable and Reusable clinical kits.

Industrial Robot
A reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks.

Inner Needle
In a follicular unit extraction procedure, the sharp needle used to create a shallow punch through the scalp in preparation for dissection with the dissection punch.

Interface
The separation between robots and the equipment not nearby. The sensors that are required for communication between the devices use signals relaying input and output data.

Jogging
A robotic motion mode in which point-to-point moves are performed by the robotic arm to move to the safe position, center position, or other important locations.

Jointed Arm Robot
The arm of the robot has two junctions allowing for rotation and enhanced movement much like a person’s shoulder and elbow on their arm.

Kinesthesia
Perception of body position, movement, and muscular tensions.

Low-Mag Cameras
One pair of stereo cameras consisting of a left and a right camera with a diagonal field view of approximately 5 cm. The Low-Mag pair of cameras is used for tracking fiducials and planning harvest spacing and direction.

Manipulator
A robotic ‘hand’. Also known as a gripper.

Maximum Envelope Space
The largest area that all parts of the robot cover with its various movements.

Medical Robotics
Remote activated or user manipulated motion-control, imaging and communication devices, operated via computer hardware and software to enable physicians to conduct an increasing array of hair restoration and a wide variety of other surgical procedures in a minimally invasive manner.

Mouse Manual Control
A robotic motion mode in which the operator controls robotic arm motions using the mouse on the video screen. This mode is typically used to slowly move the robotic arm over the harvest area.

Needle Mechanism
The device mounted at the end of the robotic arm that holds the force sensor, cameras, inner needle, and dissection punch used to perform FUE.

Needle Mechanism Interface Panel
A display and buttons on the top surface of the ARTAS System Cart used to monitor the Needle Mechanism status and manually control the Needle Mechanism during servicing. The system power on and off buttons are also here.

Operator Workstation
The monitor, keyboard, and mouse for operator controlling the ARTAS application during the hair restoration procedure.

PDU
Power Distribution Unit.

Reach
The distance from the center of the robot to the fullest extension of the robotic arm. The work envelope is determined from this distance.

Rotational Motion
Describes circular movement with respect to the axis.

Safe Position
A default safe position that the Robotic Arm returns to when the operator clicks harvest spacing and direction in the welcome screen of the ARTAS application, or when the operator clicks Safe Position.

Saline Flush Station
The location on the ARTAS System Cart to which the robotic arm moves to flush the puncture needle and dissection punch following harvest.

Sensor
A device that responds to physical stimuli (such as heat, light, sound, pressure, magnetism, motion, etc.) and transmits the resulting signal or data for providing a measurement, operating a control, or both.

Service Robot
Machines that extend human capabilities.

Skin Tensioner
A device placed on the shaved head of a patient by the physician in the initial phase of the hair transplant, just before beginning harvest. The Skin Tensioner pushes outward from the center to tension the skin for improved harvesting.

Stereotaxy
Precise, deliberate and spatially encoded movements.

Surgical Robot
A remote manipulator used for minimally-invasive surgery.

System Interconnect Panel
The upper panel on rear of ARTAS System cart, which contains operator workstation and E-Stop connections.

System Power Panel
The lower panel on the rear of the ARTAS System cart, which contains main power cord and overall System power switch.

System Verification
The procedure performed a system startup to ensure that the System components are operational and properly calibrated.

Transected Follicle
A follicle that is damaged during the harvesting phase of the hair restoration process, typically detected using microscopic inspection following harvesting. The ARTAS System strives to minimize the percentage of transected follicles.

User Interface (UI)
User interface. The part of a software application with which a user sees and interacts.

Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS)
Used for backup power when power is not available.

Vertical Stroke
The amount of vertical motion of a robot arm from one elevation to the other.

Work Envelope
The boundary of space a robot can perform operations.

Wrist
The end-effector is connected to this joint on the manipulator arm.

Yaw
The side-to-side motion of the end-effector’s rotation at an axis.


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